Parallel 1 – Business as usual? Productivity and prosperity in a changing climate

Chair: Mark Baker-Jones


 

Creating and sustaining value in light of change: A value chain approach to climate adaptation (#61)

Lilly Lim-Camacho 1 , Steven Crimp 2 , Mark Howden 2

  1. CSIRO, Pullenvale, QLD, Australia
  2. CSIRO, Black Mountain, ACT, Australia
Value chains have long been regarded as the physical and social network of firms that enable the delivery of consumer value, and the distribution of profits that result from this. Value chains operate as an integral part of the supply chain with the former focussed on information, knowledge and value and the latter with the production and distribution of a product. There is growing awareness that both supply and value chains are now more at risk as the impacts of climate change and associated variability are felt from farm input suppliers all the way to consumer markets. In order to minimise exposure to climate risks and maintain or possibly enhance productivity, adaptation options, and their implications, must be considered across the entire chain. We adopted a value chain analysis approach to evaluate known and foreseen impacts of climate change, and identify adaptation options that realise broader benefits across firms. We present results from two Australian case studies from the food and beverage industries that highlight the inter-related impacts of climate change across the value chain as well as some of the innovative adaptation responses that have been identified as part of this assessment process. Finally, we consider the linkages between supply chain and value chain management theory in identifying the key drivers of successful consideration of climate change across chains and how this is supported in practice.

Improved production, adaptation and mitigation for southern Australian Livestock (#120)

Melissa Rebbeck 1

  1. The University of Adelaide – School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, South Australia, SA, Australia

In southern Australia, current pasture systems are under threat due a narrowing window of pasture availability. In recent times southern Australian producers have been exposed to later starts and earlier finishes and hotter conditions.  Over the past 20 years, 80% of south eastern Australian autumn rainfall has been below average and many springs below average.   Livestock producers have made tactical modifications to their management to adapt to these conditions.  Tactical seasonal adjustments working in tandem with research for strategic business changes, shows that livestock producers can prosper in a changing and variable climate.  Further research demonstrates that mitigation and adaptation are complementary and that certain changed practices improve production and profitability well into the future.

This paper demonstrates the potential impact climate change will have on current pasture systems and livestock production by 2030 and 2070 using modelled data from Grass Grow (Moore et al).  The paper also demonstrates particular adaptations that can increase productivity and profitability and how these changes will also reduce methane emissions from cattle and sheep.  These changes include modifying feed intake and utilising alternative by feed by products, improved genetics, modification of joining dates and optimising stocking rates.

The research combines outputs from the ‘southern livestock adaptation’ project funded by Meat and Livestock Australia, and recent research outputs looking at ‘innovative practices to reduce methane emissions’ both underpinned by funding by the federal government Department of Agriculture , the latter project is also an Action on the Ground  project under the Carbon Farming Initiative.


 

A new paradigm for changing farmer attitudes to climate change and transforming behaviours. (#214)

John Noonan 1 , Chris Evans 2

  1. Curtin University, PERTH, WA, Australia
  2. Western Australian Council of Social Service, Western Australia, WA, Australia

A host of external and internal factors, some  controllable and others uncontrollable (wicked problems), of which  climate change is a preeminent factor,  are challenging the resilience and sustainability of farm businesses in the developed and developing world. While many Australian farmers have been making productivity gains of some three per cent per annum over the last thirty years, largely through technological advancement and innovation, the gains have been differentially decreasing over the medium term. Intuitively, a decrease in productivity gains will influence the ability to mitigate the negative impact of some influences.  Farm businesses need to continue to adapt and transform largely by adopting new innovations to remain profitable.

In working with 600 farming businesses in Western Australia, a “learning journey” approach, utilizing multidisciplinary facilitation teams, with a focus on improved adaptive and transformational capacity in the face of  climate change, has provided a pathway for a renaissance in agricultural extension.

Failings of previous content focused models to influence farmer attitudes and bring about behaviour change are characterised. Concurrent research on rural community attitudes to climate change is considered.  Attitude changes and plans to adapt and or transform farming practices and the likely sustainability impacts are discussed. Findings are linked to previous calls for change in policy and strategic approach. Implications for innovation in the provision of extension services are demonstrated through a new model that focuses on contextualised processes and delivery capacity rather than content.


A Quantitative Metric to Identify Critical Elements within Seafood Supply Networks (#219)

Ingrid van Putten 1 , Eva Plaganyi 2 , Olivier Thebaud 2 , Alistair Hobdat 1 , James Innes 2 , Lilly Lim-Camacho 2 , Ana Norman-Lopez 2 , Rodrigo Bustamante 2 , Anna Farmery 3, Aysha Fleming 1 , Stewart Frusher 3 , Bridget Green 3 , Eriko Hoshino 3 , Sarah Jennings 3 , Gretta Pecl 3 , Sean Pascoe 2 , Peggy Schrobback 4 , Linda Thomas 1

  1. Climate Adaptation Flagship, Hobart, TAS, Australia
  2. Climate Adaptation Flagship, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
  3. University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia
  4. Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD, Australia
A theoretical basis is required for comparing key features and critical elements in wild fisheries and aquaculture supply chains under a changing climate. Here we develop a new quantitative metric that is analogous to indices used to analyse food-webs and identify key species. The Supply Chain Index (SCI) identifies critical elements as those elements with large throughput rates, as well as greater connectivity. The sum of the scores for a supply chain provides a single metric that roughly captures both the resilience and connectedness of a supply chain. Standardised scores can facilitate crosscomparisons both under current conditions as well as under a changing climate. Identification of key elements along the supply chain may assist in informing adaptation strategies to reduce anticipated future risks posed by climate change. The SCI also provides information on the relative stability of different supply chains based on  whether there is a fairly even spread in the individual scores of the top few key elements, compared with a more critical dependence on a few key individual supply chain elements. We use as a case study the Australian southern rock lobster Jasus edwardsii fishery and an additional four real-world Australian commercial fishery and two aquaculture industry supply chains to highlight the utility of a systematic method for describing supply chains. Overall, our simple methodological approach to empiricallybased supply chain research provides an objective method for comparing the resilience of supply chains and highlighting components that may be critical.

Property Resilience Exposure Program (PREP) – Local Government and the insurance industry: collaborating to develop a resilient built environment and address insurance affordability (#79)

Tom Davies 1 , Sarah Bray 1

  1. Edge Environment, Manly, NSW, Australia

The Property Resilience and Exposure Program (PREP) represents a practical implementation of the ongoing Insurance Council of Australia’s Resilience Program. PREP collates data sources to develop an understanding of the resilience of homes to natural hazards. Using the Building Resilience Rating Tool, and creating “Resilience Maps” PREP creates a common understanding of the resilience of the homes in the LGA and explore mechanisms, such as building guidelines, and controls, to start addressing insurance affordability. PREP offers a solution to the growing risk faced by communities and local governments struggling to identify where to focus climate change adaptation efforts.

PREP uses best available hazard data (such as a local government flood study) to determine a property’s hazard risk profile. Building information data including ground floor height, construction information and specific location of the property is collated into a database. The Building Resilience Rating Tool then uses the hazard data and the building information data to form a resilience rating for individual properties. A Resilience Map is produced to provide a suburb level of resilience, highlight potential vulnerable hot spots or highlighting where development controls may be having an impact on resilience.

PREP provides a mechanism for local governments to understand the resilience of homes in the community and engage with the insurance industry on factors driving insurance affordability. PREP provides a mechanism for insurers to appreciate the existing mitigation to reduce the impacts of local hazards and ensure that they are able to continue to provide cover in high hazard locations.